Sclerosponge References

Benavides, LM and Druffel, ERM, 1986. Sclerosponge growth rate as determined by 210Pb and D14C chronologies, Coral Reefs, 4:221-224.

Bohm, F., Joachimski, M.M., Lehnert, H., Morgenroth, G., Kretschmer, W. Vaceot, W.C., 1996. Carbon isotope records from extant Caribbean and South Pacific sponges: Evolution of d13C in surface water DIC, Earth Planetary Science Letters, 139:291-303.

Druffel, E.R.M. and Benavides, L.M., 1986. Input of excess CO2 to the surface ocean based on the 13C/12C ratios in a banded Jamaican sclerosponge, Nature, 321:58-61.

Dustan, P., Jaap. W, and Halas, J. 1976. The distribution of the class Sclerospongia, Lethaia, 9:419-420.

Dustan P and Sacco, WK, 1982. The sclerosponges of Chalet Caribe Reef. Discovery, 16:13-17.

Goreau, TF, 1959. The ecology of Jamaican reefs.I. Species composition and zonation. Ecology, 40:67-90.

Hartman, WD and Goreau, TF, 1970. Jamaican coralline sponges: Their morphology, ecology and fossil relatives, Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 25:205-243.

Keeling, C.D., Bacastow, R.B., Carter, A.F., Piper, S.C., Whorf, T.P., Heimann, M., Mook, W.G., Roeloffzen, H., 1989. A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 1. Analysis of observational data, in: Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, D.H. Peterson, ed., pp. 165-236, Am. Geophys. Union, Washington D.C.

Lang, J.C., Hartman, W.D., Land, L.S., 1975. Sclerosponges:Primary framework constructors on the Jamaican fore-reef. Mar. Res., 33:223-231.



Nozaki, Y, Rye, DM, Turekian, KK and Dodge, RE, 1978. A 200-year record of carbon-13 and carbon-14 variation in a Bermuda coral. Geophys. Res. Lett., 5:825-828.



Scoffin, TP and Hendry, MD, 1984. Shallow-water sclerosponges on Jamaican reefs and a criterion for recognition of hurricane deposits., Nature, 307:728-729.

P. Willenz & W.D. Hartman 1985, Calcification rate of Ceratoporella nicholsoni (Porifera: Sclerospongiae): An In Situ study with calcein. Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti 1985 v 5 pp. 113-118

P. Willenz & S.A. Pomponi 1996, A new deep sea coralline sponge from Turks and Caicos Islands: Willardia caicosensis gen. et sp. nov. (Demospongiae: Hadromerida). Bull. de L'Institut Roy Des Sciences Nat. de Belgique 66

suppl: 205-218

Ph. Willenz & W.D. Hartman, 1989. Micromorphology and ultrastructure of Caribbean sclerosponges. 1. Ceratoporella nicholsoni and Stromatospongia norae (Ceratoporellidae: Porifera). Marine Biol 103: 3878-401.



Wood, R., 1990. Reef-building sponges, Amer. Scien. 78:224.235.


Last Updated January 20, 1998 by Peter Swart